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Recent references related to SPICE

SPICE Report 2013: Ganachaud, A., M. Bowen, G. Brassington, W. Cai, S. Cravatte, R. Davis, L. Gourdeau, T. Hasegawa, L; Hill, N. Holbrook, W. Kessler, C. Maes, A. Melet, B. Qiu, K. Ridgway, D. Roemmich, A. Schiller, U. Send, B. Sloyan, J. Sprintall, C. Steinberg, P. Sutton, J. Verron, M. Widlansky, P. Wiles “Advances from the Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE).” CLIVAR Newsletter Exchanges 18, no. 61 (2013): 16–23.

Peer-reviewed or submitted; post-2006



*** JGR-Ocean special issue on the Western Pacific Circulation and Climate ***

  • Ganachaud, A., Cravatte, S., Melet, A., Schiller, A., Holbrook, N., Sloyan, B., Widlansky, M., Bowen, M., Verron, J., Wiles, P., Ridgway, K., Sutton, P., Sprintall, J., Steinberg, C.R., Brassington, G., Cai, W., Davis, R., Gasparin, F., Gourdeau, L., Hasegawa, T., Kessler, W., Maes, C., Takahashi, K., Richards, K.J., Send, U., 2014: The Southwest Pacific Ocean and Climate Experiment (SPICE). J. Geophys. Res., 119, 7660-7686 (Special issue on Western Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate) doi: 10.1002/2013JC009678
  • Cravatte, S., E. Kestenare, G. Eldin, A. Ganachaud, J. Lefèvre, F. Marin, C. Menkes, and J. Aucan, 2015: Regional circulation around New Caledonia from two decades of observations. Journal of Marine Systems, 148, 249–271, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2015.03.004
  • Oliver, E.C.J., O’Kane, T.J., Holbrook, N.J., 2015. Projected changes to Tasman Sea eddies in a future climate. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120, 7150–7165. doi:10.1002/2015JC010993


  • Delcroix, T., M.-H. Radenac, S. Cravatte, G. Alory, L. Gourdeau, F. Léger, A. Singh, and D. Varillon, 2014: Sea surface temperature and salinity seasonal changes in the western Solomon and Bismarck Seas. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119, 2642–2657, doi:10.1002/2013JC009733.
  • Djath, B., A. Melet, J. Verron, J.-M. Molines, B. Barnier, L. Gourdeau, and L. Debreu, 2014a: A 1/36 model of the Solomon Sea embedded into a global ocean model: On the setting up of an interactive open boundary nested model system. Journal of Operational Oceanography, 7, 34–46.
  • Djath, B., J. Verron, A. Melet, L. Gourdeau, B. Barnier, and J. M. Molines, 2014b: Multiscale analysis of dynamics from high resolution realistic model of the Solomon Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Special Section on Western Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate, doi:10.1002/2013JC009695.
  • Fernandez, D., M. Bowen, and L. Carter, 2014: Intensification and variability of the confluence of subtropical and subantarctic boundary currents east of New Zealand. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 1146–1160, doi:10.1002/2013JC009153.
  • Fernandez, D., M. Bowen, and L. Carter, 2014: Intensification and variability of the confluence of subtropical and subantarctic boundary currents eastNew Zealand. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 1146–1160, doi:10.1002/2013JC009153.
  • Gasparin, F., C. Maes, J. Sudre, V. Garcon, and A. Ganachaud, 2014: Water mass analysis of the Coral Sea through an Optimum Multi-Parameter method. J. Geophys. Res., dpi: 10.1002/2014JC010246.
  • Gaultier, L., B. Djath, J. Verron, A. Melet, J.-M. Brankart, and P. Brasseur, 2014: Assessing the feasibility of the inversion of sub-mesoscales in a high-resolution Solomon Sea model. J. Geophys. Res. Special Section on Western Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate, doi:10.1002/2013JC009660.
  • Gourdeau, L., J. Verron, F. Marin, W. Kessler, and A. Melet, 2014: Exploring the mesoscale activity in the Solomon Sea: a complementary approach with a numerical model and altimetric data. J. Geophys. Res. Special Section on Western Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate, doi: 10.1002/2013JC009614
  • Grenier, M., C. Jeandel, and S. Cravatte, 2014: From the subtropicss to the equator in the Southwest Pacific: Continental material fluxes quantified using neodymium parameters along modeled thermocline water pathways. J. Geophys. Res. Special Section on Western Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate, doi: 10.1029/2012JC008239
  • Hristova, H. G., W. Kessler, J. C. McWilliams, and M. J. Molemaker, 2014: Mesoscale variability and its seasonal variability in the Solomon and Coral Seas. J. Geophys. Res. Special Issue on Western Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate, doi: 10.1002/2013JC009741.
  • Oliver, E. C. J., and N. J. Holbrook, 2014a: Extending our understanding of South Pacific gyre ``spin-up’’: Modeling the East Australian Current in a future climate. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, doi:10.1002/2013JC009591.
  • Oliver, E. C. J., and N. J. Holbrook, 2014b: A Statistical Method for Improving Continental Shelf and Nearshore Marine Climate Predictions. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 31, 216–232, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00052.1.
  • Oliver, E. C. J., S. J. Wotherspoon, M. A. Chamberlain, and N. J. Holbrook, 2014a: Projected Tasman Sea Extremes in Sea Surface Temperature through the Twenty-First Century. Journal of Climate, 27, 1980–1998, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00259.1.
  • Oliver, E. C. J., S. J. Wotherspoon, and N. J. Holbrook, 2014b: Estimating extremes from global ocean and climate models: A Bayesian hierarchical model approach. Progress in Oceanography, 122, 77–91, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2013.12.004.
  • Sutton, P. J. H., and M. Bowen, 2014: Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, doi:10.1002/2013JC009543.


  • Kessler, W. S., and S. Cravatte, 2013: ENSO and short-term variability of the South Equatorial Current entering the Coral Sea. Journal of Physical Oceanography, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-0113.1.
  • Maes, C., B. Dewitte, J. Sudre, V. Garçon, and D. Varillon, 2013: Small-scale features of temperature and salinity surface fields in the Coral Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, n/a–n/a, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20344.
  • Melet, A., Gourdeau, L., Verron, J., Djath, B., 2013. Solomon Sea circulation and water mass modifications: response at ENSO timescales. Ocean Dynamics. DOI: 10.1007/s10236-012-0582-0
  • Singh, A., and T. Delcroix, 2013: Eastern and Central Pacific ENSO and their relationships to the recharge/discharge oscillator paradigm. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 82, 32–43, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2013.08.002.
  • Zilberman, N. V., D. H. Roemmich, and S. T. Gille. “The Mean and the Time-variability of the Shallow Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Tropical South Pacific Ocean.” Journal of Climate (2013): In press. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00120.1.


  • Brown, J.N., Sen Gupta, A., Brown, J.R., Muir, L.C., Risbey, J.S., Zhang, X., Ganachaud, A., Murphy, B.F., Wijffels, S., 2012. Implications of CMIP3 model biases and uncertainties for climate projections in the western Tropical Pacific. Climatic Change. DOI:10.1007/s10584-012-0603-5
  • Davis, R.E., Kessler, W.S., Sherman, J.T., 2012. Gliders Measure Western Boundary Current Transport from the South Pacific to the Equator*. Journal of Physical Oceanography 42, 2001–2013. DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-022.1
  • Ganachaud, A., Sen Gupta, A., Brown, J.N., Evans, K., Maes, C., Muir, L.C., Graham, F.S., 2012. Projected changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean of importance to tuna fisheries. Climatic Change. DOI 10.1007/s10584-012-0631-1
  • Gasparin, F., Ganachaud, A., Maes, C., Marin, F., Eldin, G., 2012. Oceanic transports through the Solomon Sea: The bend of the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent. Geophysical Research Letters 39. 10.1029/2012GL052575
  • Kolodziejczyk, N., Gaillard, F., 2012. Observation of spiciness interannual variability in the Pacific pycnocline. Journal of Geophysical Research. DOI: 10.1029/2012JC008365
  • Lengaigne, M., U. Hausmann, G. Madec, C. Menkes, J. Vialard, and J. M. Molines. “Mechanisms Controlling Warm Water Volume Interannual Variations in the Equatorial Pacific: Diabatic Versus Adiabatic Processes.” Climate Dynamics 38, no. 5–6 (2012): 1031–1046. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1051-z.
  • Matthews, Adrian J. “A Multiscale Framework for the Origin and Variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 138, no. 666 (July 2012): 1165–1178. doi:10.1002/qj.1870.
  • Melet A., J. Verron and J-M. Brankart, (2012): Potentiality of Glider Data Assimilation in the Solomon Sea: Control of the mass field according to some simple scenarios and Estimation of the tidal mixing parameter. Journal of Marine Systems, 94, 232-246.
  • Sen Gupta, A., Ganachaud, A., McGregor, S., Brown, J.N., Muir, L.C., 2012. Drivers of the Projected Changes to the Pacific Ocean Equatorial Circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett 39. doi:10.1029/2012GL051447
  • SPICE community (2012), Naming a western boundary current from Australia to the Solomon Sea, CLIVAR Newsletter Exchanges, 16(56), 28.
  • Widlansky, Matthew J., Axel Timmermann, Karl Stein, Shayne McGregor, Niklas Schneider, Matthew H. England, Matthieu Lengaigne, and Wenju Cai. “Changes in South Pacific Rainfall Bands in a Warming Climate.” Nature Climate Change (October 28, 2012). doi:10.1038/nclimate1726.


  • Cravatte, S., A. Ganachaud, Q.-P. Duong, W. Kessler, G. Eldin and P. Dutrieux, 2011. Observed circulation in the Solomon Sea from SADCP data, Prog. Oceanogr., 88, 116-130. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2010.12.015
  • Delcroix, T., Alory, G., Cravatte, S., Correge, T., McPhaden, M.J., 2011. A gridded sea surface salinity data set for the tropical Pacific with  sample applications (1950-2008). Deep-Sea Res. Part I-Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 58, 38–48.
  • A. Ganachaud, A. Sen Gupta, J. Orr, S. Wijffels, K. Ridgway, M. Hemer, C. Maes, C. Steinberg, A. Tribollet, B. Qiu, J. Kruger. Observed and Expected Changes to the Pacific Ocean, 2011. In: Vulnerability of Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Pacific to Climate Change (J.D. Bell, ed.). Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia.
  • Gao, Shan, Tangdong Qu, and Ichiro Fukumori. “Effects of Mixing on the Subduction of South Pacific Waters Identified by a Simulated Passive Tracer and Its Adjoint.” Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 51, no. 1–2 (January 2011): 45–54. doi:10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2010.10.002.
  • Gasparin, F., A. Ganachaud and C. Maes, 2011. A western boundary current east of New Caledonia : observed characteristics. Deep Sea Res. part I, 58, 956-969. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2011.05.007 (summary page)
  • Grenier, M., Cravatte, S., Blanke, B., Menkes, C., Koch-Larrouy, A., Durand, F., Mélet, A., Jeandel, C., 2011. From the western boundary currents to the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent: Modeled pathways and water mass evolutions. Journal of Geophysical Research 116, C12044.
  • Hill, K.L., Rintoul, S.R., Ridgway, K.R., Oke, P.R., 2011. Decadal changes in the South Pacific western boundary current system  revealed in observations and ocean state estimates. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans 116. DOI: 10.1029/2009JC005926
  • Hristova, H.G., Kessler, W.S., 2011. Surface circulation in the Solomon Sea derived from Lagrangian drifter observations. Journal of Physical Oceanography 111107141052007.
  • Melet A., J. Verron, L. Gourdeau, and A. Koch-Larrouy, Equatorward pathways of Solomon Sea water masses and their modifications, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 810-826, 2011
  • Sutton, Pjh, and Mm Bowen. “Currents Off the West Coast of Northland, New Zealand.” New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45, no. 4 (December 2011): 609–624. doi:10.1080/00288330.2011.569729.


  • Choukroun, S., P. V. Ridd, R. Brinkman, and L. I. W. McKinna (2010), On the surface circulation in the western Coral Sea and residence times in the Great Barrier Reef, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C06013, doi:10.1029/2009JC005761
  • Ganachaud, A., A. Vega, M. Rodier, C. Dupouy, C. Maes, P. Marchesiello, G. Eldin, K. Ridgway, and R. Leborgne. Observed impact of upwelling on water properties and biological activity off the southwest coast of New Caledonia. Mar. Polut. Bull., Mar. Pollut. Bull. (2010), 61, 449–464. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.06.042.
  • Hill, K.L., Rintoul, S.R., Oke, P.R., Ridgway, K., 2010. Rapid response of the East Australian Current to remote wind forcing: The role of barotropic-baroclinic interactions. Journal of Marine Research, 68 3, 413–431.
  • Holbrook, N. J., 2010: South Pacific Ocean dynamics: potential for enhancing sea level and climate forecasts. Chapter 10 in: 'Climate Alert: Climate Change Monitoring and Strategy', eds. Y. You and A. Henderson-Sellers, Sydney University Press, pp.313-342, ISBN 978-1-920899-41-7.
  • Holbrook, N.J., Goodwin, I.D., McGregor, S., Molina, E., Power, S.B., 2010. ENSO to multi-decadal time scale changes in East Australian Current transports and Fort Denison sea level: Oceanic Rossby waves as the connecting mechanism. Deep-Sea Research II 58, 547–558, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.06.007
  • Melet A., L. Gourdeau, and J. Verron. Variability in Solomon Sea circultion derived from altimeter data. Ocean Dynamics, 2010. DOI: 10.1007/s10236-010-0302-6.
  • Melet A., L. Gourdeau, W. Kessler, J. Verron, and J.-M. Molines, 2010. Thermocline circulation in the Solomon Sea: a modeling study. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40(6), 1302-1319.
  • Ridgway, K.R., Dunn, J.R., 2010. Using satellite altimetry to correct mean temperature and salinity  fields derived from Argo floats in the ocean regions around Australia. Deep-Sea Res. Part I-Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57, 1137–1151.
  • Widlansky, Matthew J., Peter J. Webster, and Carlos D. Hoyos. “On the Location and Orientation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone.” Climate Dynamics 36, no. 3–4 (July 2010): 561–578. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0871-6.


  • Cravatte S., T. Delcroix, D. Zhang, M. McPhaden, and J. Leloup, 2009. Observed freshening and warming of the western Pacific warm pool. Clim. Dyn., 33:565-589, doi 10.1007/s00382-009-0526-7.
  • Maharaj, A.M., N. J. Holbrook, and P. Cipollini, 2009. Multiple westward propagating signals in South Pacific sea level anomalies, J. Geophys. Res. 114, C12016, doi:10.1029/2008JC004799
  • Qiu B, Chen S and Kessler W (2009) Source of the 70-day mesoscale eddy variability in the Coral Sea and the North Fiji Basin. Journal of Physical Oceanography 39, 404-420.
  • Qu, Tangdong, Shan Gao, Ichiro Fukumori, Rana A. Fine, and Eric J. Lindstrom. “Origin and Pathway of Equatorial 13°C Water in the Pacific Identified by a Simulated Passive Tracer and Its Adjoint.” Journal of Physical Oceanography 39, no. 8 (August 2009): 1836–1853. doi:10.1175/2009JPO4045.1.
  • Martinez, E., A. Ganachaud, J. Lefevre, and E. Maamaatuaihutapu, 2009. Central South Pacific thermocline water circulation from a high resolution ocean model validated against satellite data: seasonal variability and El Nino 1997-1998 influence. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C05012, doi:10.1029/2008JC004824.
  • Sato, Kanako, and Toshio Suga. “Structure and Modification of the South Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water.” Journal of Physical Oceanography 39, no. 7 (July 2009): 1700–1714. doi:10.1175/2008JPO3940.1.
  • Schiller, A., Ridgway, K.R., Steinberg, C.R., Oke, P.R., 2009. Dynamics of three anomalous SST events in the Coral Sea. Geophysical Research Letters 36.
  • Vincent, Emmanuel M., Matthieu Lengaigne, Christophe E. Menkes, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Patrick Marchesiello, and Gurvan Madec. “Interannual Variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone and Implications for Tropical Cyclone Genesis.” Climate Dynamics (2009). doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0716-3.


  • Bosc, Christelle, and Thierry Delcroix. “Observed Equatorial Rossby Waves and ENSO-related Warm Water Volume Changes in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean.” Journal of Geophysical Research 113, no. C6 (June 4, 2008). doi:10.1029/2007JC004613.
  • Couvelard, X., P. Marchesiello, L. Gourdeau, and J. Lefèvre, 2008. Barotropic zonal jets induced by islands in the southwest Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 2185-2204.
  • Ganachaud, A., L. Gourdeau, and W. Kessler, 2008. Bifurcation of the subtropical south equatorial current against New Caledonia in December 2004 from an hydrographic inverse box model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 2072-2084.
  • Gourdeau, L., W. Kessler, R. Davis, J. Sherman, C. Maes, and E. Kestenare, 2008. Zonal jets entering the Coral sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 715-725.
  • Hill, K.L., Rintoul, S.R., Coleman, R., Ridgway, K.R., 2008. Wind forced low frequency variability of the East Australia Current. Geophysical Research Letters 35.
  • Holbrook, N. J., A. M. Maharaj, 2008. Southwest Pacific subtropical mode water: A climatology. Progr. Oceanogr. 77, 298-315.
  • Lintner, B. R, and J. D Neelin. “Eastern Margin Variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone.” Geophys. Res. Lett 35 (2008): L16701. doi:10.1029/2008GL034298.
  • McGregor, Shayne, Neil J. Holbrook, and Scott B. Power. “Interdecadal Sea Surface Temperature Variability in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Part II: The Role of Equatorial/Off-Equatorial Wind Stresses in a Hybrid Coupled Model.” Journal of Climate 21, no. 17 (September 2008): 4242–4256. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2057.1.
  • Qu, Tangdong, Shan Gao, Ichiro Fukumori, Rana A. Fine, and Eric J. Lindstrom. “Subduction of South Pacific Waters.” Geophysical Research Letters 35, no. 2 (January 24, 2008). doi:10.1029/2007GL032605.
  • Ridgway, KR, R. C. Coleman, R. J. Bailey, and P. Sutton, 2008. Decadal variability of East Australian Current transport inferred from repeated high-density XBT transects, a CTD survey and satellite altimetry. J. Geophys. Res 113, C08039, doi:10.1029/2007JC004664
  • Sasaki, Yoshi N., Shoshiro Minobe, Niklas Schneider, Takashi Kagimoto, Masami Nonaka, and Hideharu Sasaki. “Decadal Sea Level Variability in the South Pacific in a Global Eddy-Resolving Ocean Model Hindcast.” Journal of Physical Oceanography 38, no. 8 (August 2008): 1731–1747. doi:10.1175/2007JPO3915.1.
  • Schiller, A., Oke, P.R., Brassington, G., Entel, M., Fiedler, R., Griffin, D.A., Mansbridge, J.V., 2008. Eddy-resolving ocean circulation in the Asian–Australian region inferred from an ocean reanalysis effort. Progress In Oceanography 76, 334–365.


  • Brassington, G., N. Summons, G. Ball, and L. Cowen. “East Australian Current and Tasman Sea Pilot Surface Drifiting Buoy Experiment.” BMRC Research Letter no. 6 (2007): 21–25.
  • Cheng, Wei, Michael J. McPhaden, Dongxiao Zhang, and E. Joseph Metzger. “Recent Changes in the Pacific Subtropical Cells Inferred from an Eddy-Resolving Ocean Circulation Model.” Journal of Physical Oceanography 37, no. 5 (May 2007): 1340–1356. doi:10.1175/JPO3051.1.
  • Delcroix, T., S. Cravatte, and M. McPhaden, 2007. Decadal variations and trends in tropical Pacific sea surface salinity since 1970. J. Geophys. Res, 112, C03012, doi:10.1029/2006JC003801.
  • Kessler, W., and L. Gourdeau, 2007. The annual cycle of circulation of the southwest subtropical Pacific, analyzed in an ocean GCM. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 1610-1627, doi:10.1175/JPO3046.1.
  • Maes, C., L. Gourdeau, X. Couvelard, and A. Ganachaud, 2007. What are the origins of the Antarctic Intermediate Waters transported by the North Caledonian Jet. Geophys. Res. Let., 34, L21608, doi:10.1029/2007GL031546.
  • Maharaj, Angela M., Paolo Cipollini, Neil J. Holbrook, Peter D. Killworth, and Jeffrey R. Blundell. “An Evaluation of the Classical and Extended Rossby Wave Theories in Explaining Spectral Estimates of the First Few Baroclinic Modes in the South Pacific Ocean.” Ocean Dynamics 57, no. 3 (January 30, 2007): 173–187. doi:10.1007/s10236-006-0099-5.
  • McGregor, Shayne, Neil J. Holbrook, and Scott B. Power. “Interdecadal Sea Surface Temperature Variability in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Part I: The Role of Off-Equatorial Wind Stresses and Oceanic Rossby Waves.” Journal of Climate 20, no. 11 (June 2007): 2643–2658. doi:10.1175/JCLI4145.1.
  • Martinez, E., K. Maamaatuaiahutapu, C. Payri, and A. Ganachaud, 2007. Turbinaria ornata invasion in the Tuamotu archipelago, French Polynesia: ocean drift connectivity. Coral Reef, 26, 79-86, doi.10.1007/s00338-006-0160-3.
  • Ridgway, K.R., 2007a. Long-term trend and decadal variability of the southward penetration of the East Australian Current. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34.
  • Ridgway, K.R., 2007b. Seasonal circulation around Tasmania: An interface between eastern and western boundary dynamics. Journal of Geophysical Research 112.
  • Ridgway, C.R. and J.R. Dunn, 2007. Observational evidence for a Southern Hemisphere oceanic supergyre, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34 L13612, doi:10.1029/2007GL030392
  • Roemmich, D., Gilson, J., Davis, R., Sutton, P., Wijffels, S., Riser, S., 2007. Decadal Spinup of the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Journal of Physical Oceanography 37, 162–173.
  • Takahashi, Ken, and David S. Battisti. “Processes Controlling the Mean Tropical Pacific Precipitation Pattern. Part I: The Andes and the Eastern Pacific ITCZ.” Journal of Climate 20, no. 14 (July 2007): 3434–3451. doi:10.1175/JCLI4198.1.
  • Takahashi, Ken, and David S. Battisti. “Processes Controlling the Mean Tropical Pacific Precipitation Pattern. Part II: The SPCZ and the Southeast Pacific Dry Zone.” Journal of Climate 20, no. 23 (December 2007): 5696–5706. doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1656.1.
  • Tsubouchi, Takamasa, Toshio Suga, and Kimio Hanawa. “Three Types of South Pacific Subtropical Mode Waters: Their Relation to the Large-Scale Circulation of the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre and Their Temporal Variability.” Journal of Physical Oceanography 37, no. 10 (October 2007): 2478–2490. doi:10.1175/JPO3132.1.


  • Alory, G., A. Vega, A. Ganachaud, and M. Despinoy, 2006. Influence of upwelling, subsurface stratification, and heat fluxes on coastal sea surface temperature off southwestern New Caledonia. J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC003401.
  • Kessler, W., and, L. Gourdeau, 2006. Wind driven zonal jets in the South Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Let., 33, doi:10.1029/2005GL025084.
  • Qiu B and Chen S, 2006. Decadal Variability in the Large-Scale Sea Surface Height Field of the South Pacific Ocean: Observations and Causes. Journal of Physical Oceanography 36, 1751-1762.